GRUP DE RECERCA FUNDACIÓ DIETA MEDITERRÀNIA

Fundació Dieta Mediterrània (Barcelona)

Directora: Rosa M Casas
Professora associada de la Universitat de Barcelona.
A/E director: rcasas1@clinic.cat

a/e : info@dietamediterranea.com
Telèfon de contacte: 93 4143158

MEMBRES DEL GRUP INVESTIGADOR

Rosa M. Casas
Investigador principal, CiberObn
rcasas1@clinic.cat

Ramon Estruch
Consultor Sènior. Servei de Medicina Interna, Hospital Clínic
restruch@clinic.cat

Isabel Bertomeu Galindo
Nutricionista-Dietista, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
ibertomeu@fdmed.org

Jordi Gonzalez
Nutricionista-Dietista, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
jgonzalez@fdmed.org

Blanca Raidó Quintana
Nutricionista-Dietista, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
braido@fdmed.org

Ana Mª Ruiz
Nutricionista-Dietista pre-doctoral, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
AMRUIZ@clinic.cat

 

ACTIVITATS I CAPACITATS DEL GRUP DE RECERCA

La Fundació Dieta Mediterrània (FDM) és una entitat sense ànim de lucre de caràcter estrictament científic i cultural fundada el 1996. La finalitat principal de la qual és la salvaguarda del patrimoni mil·lenari comú a les poblacions de la conca mediterrània, la filosofia de vida i costums alimentàries i culinàries han despertat d’interès d’eminents científics de tot el món en les últimes dècades per la seva contribució a la prevenció de nombroses malalties.
La Fundació Dieta Mediterrània està formada per un patronat que inclou organismes de la administració pública així com altres entitats i empreses. Està avalada per un comitè científic de gran prestigi internacional en el camp de la nutrició, format per reconeguts investigadors internacionals, que assessoren a la Fundació en temes científics, i esta presidit per el Dr. Ramon Estruch, consultor sènior del Servei de Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínic de Barcelona i Professor Associat de la Facultat de Medicina de la Universitat de Barcelona.
La Fundació destaca per la seva llarga trajectòria paral·lela en la investigació del “patró de dieta mediterrània” i salut, així com en la promoció del patró a través de campanyes d’educació nutricional. La seva recerca es base en l’estudi de la mencionada associació, sobretot a través de revisions sistemàtiques, en la monotorització de l’adhesió al patró a través d’índexs alimentaris, la buscada del consens en una definició del esmentat patró entre els experts i la investigació de com millorar la oferta i la demanda alimentaria en l’àmbit de l’alimentació laboral.
La Fundació organitza de forma bienal, en el marc d’Alimentària, el Congrés Internacional de Barcelona sobre la Dieta Mediterrània que reuneix més de 300 experts de arreu del món.
A més a més, des de la seva creació, la FDM realitza entre altres una varietat d’activitats dirigides a la promoció, difusió i investigació del Patró de Dieta Mediterrània.

LÍNIES DE RECERCA

Línia: Fomenta l’estudi, la investigació i la difusió dels beneficis de la Dieta Mediterrània a nivell nutricional i de salut.
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

Línia: Recuperació i promoció de la Dieta Mediterrània de manera sostenible i amb el compromís amb el medi ambient.
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

Línia: Empolsar estils de vida saludables entre la societat
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

Línia: Promoure el coneixement científic i la investigació sobre la Dieta Mediterrània com a eina clau per a contribuir a la millora de la salut pública.
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

Línia: Promoció de la Dieta Mediterrània a les escoles, així com mitjançant les activitats de revisió de menús escolars.
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

Línia: Promoció de la Dieta Mediterrània sobre les malalties cròniques.
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

Línia: Recopilació de l’evidència científica sobre el binomi dieta mediterrània i salut.
Investigador principal: Rosa Mª Casas

MILLORS PUBLICACIONS DEL GRUP (DARRERS 5 ANYS)

Estruch R, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Covas MI, Corella D, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Basora J, Muñoz MA, Sorlí JV, Martínez JA, Fitó M, Gea A, Hernán MA, Martínez-González MA; PREDIMED Study Investigators.
Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts.
N Engl J Med. 2018;378(25):e34.
PMID: 29897866.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown inverse associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk.
METHODS: In a multicenter trial in Spain, we assigned 7447 participants (55 to 80 years of age, 57% women) who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was a major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the trial was stopped on the basis of a prespecified interim analysis. In 2013, we reported the results for the primary end point in the Journal. We subsequently identified protocol deviations, including enrollment of household members without randomization, assignment to a study group without randomization of some participants at 1 of 11 study sites, and apparent inconsistent use of randomization tables at another site. We have withdrawn our previously published report and now report revised effect estimates based on analyses that do not rely exclusively on the assumption that all the participants were randomly assigned.
RESULTS: A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants; there were 96 events in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (3.8%), 83 in the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (3.4%), and 109 in the control group (4.4%). In the intention-to-treat analysis including all the participants and adjusting for baseline characteristics and propensity scores, the hazard ratio was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.91) for a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95) for a Mediterranean diet with nuts, as compared with the control diet. Results were similar after the omission of 1588 participants whose study-group assignments were known or suspected to have departed from the protocol.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study involving persons at high cardiovascular risk, the incidence of major cardiovascular events was lower among those assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts than among those assigned to a reduced-fat diet. (Funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Health, and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN35739639).

Medina-Remón A, Casas R, Tressserra-Rimbau A, Ros E, Martínez-González MA, Fitó M, Corella D, Salas-Salvadó J, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Estruch R; PREDIMED Study Investigators.
Polyphenol intake from a Mediterranean diet decreases inflammatory biomarkers related to atherosclerosis: a substudy of the PREDIMED trial.
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;83(1):114-128.
PMID: 27100393.
Abstract
High dietary polyphenol intake is associated with reduced all-cause mortality and a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. The aimhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=27100393 of the present substudy of the PREvención con DIetaMEDiterránea (Prevention with Mediterranean diet; PREDIMED) trial was to analyse the relationship between polyphenol intake measured by total urinary polyphenol excretion (TPE), and circulating inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly individuals. A substudy of 1139 high-risk participants was carried out within the PREDIMED trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat control diet or to two Mediterranean diets, supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil or nuts. Dietary intake, anthropometric data, clinical and laboratory assessments, including inflammatory biomarkers, and urinary TPE were measured at baseline and after the one-year intervention. Participants in the highest tertile of changes in urinary TPE (T3) showed significantly lower plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers [vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) (-9.47 ng ml-1 ), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (-14.71 ng ml-1 ), interleukin 6 (-1.21 pg ml-1 ), tumour necrosis factor alpha (-7.05 pg ml-1 ) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (-3.36 pg ml-1 )] than those inthe lowest tertile (T1, P < 0.02; all). A significant inverse correlation existed between urinary TPE and the plasma concentration of\VCAM-1 (r = -0.301; P < 0.001). In addition, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) decreased and plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in parallel with increasing urinary TPE (T3 vs. T1) (P < 0.005 and P = 0.004, respectively). Increases in polyphenol intake measured as urinary TPE are associated with decreased inflammatory biomarkers, suggesting a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect of polyphenols. In addition, high polyphenol intake improves cardiovascular risk factors- mainly BP and the lipid profile.

Casas R, Urpi-Sardà M, Sacanella E, Arranz S, Corella D, Castañer O, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Salas-Salvadó J, Lapetra J, Portillo MP, Estruch R. Anti-Inflammatory
Effects of the Mediterranean Diet in the Early and Late Stages of Atheroma Plaque Development.
Mediators Inflamm. 2017;2017:3674390.
PMID: 28484308.
Abstract
Objective. To evaluate the long-term effects of a Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) intervention on the plasma concentrations of inflammatory and plaque stability-related molecules in elderly people at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Design and Setting. 66 participants from primary care centers affiliated with the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona were randomized into 3 groups: MeDiet plus extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) or nuts and a low-fat diet (LFD). At baseline and at 3 and 5 years, we evaluated the changes in the plasma concentrations of 24 inflammatory biomarkers related to the different stages of the atherosclerotic process by Luminex®. Results. At 3 and 5 years, both MeDiet groups showed a significant reduction of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and MIP-1β (P < 0.05; all) compared to LFD. IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12p70, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, GCSF, GMCSF, and ENA78 (P < 0.05; all) only decreased in the MeDiet+EVOO group and E-selectin and sVCAM-1 (P < 0.05; both) in the MeDiet+nuts group. Conclusions. Long-term adherence to MeDiet decreases the plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers related to different steps of atheroma plaque development in elderly persons at high cardiovascular risk.

Casas R, Sacanella E, Urpí-Sardà M, Corella D, Castañer O, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA, Ros E, Estruch R.
Long-Term Immunomodulatory Effects of a Mediterranean Diet in Adults at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Nutr. 2016;146(9):1684-93.
PMID: 27440261
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated short-term anti-inflammatory effects, but little is known about its long-term immunomodulatory properties.
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to assess the long-term effects of the MedDiet on inflammatory markers related to atherogenesis in adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the effects of a low-fat diet (LFD).
METHODS: We randomly assigned 165 high-risk participants (one-half men; mean age: 66 y) without overt CVD to 1 of 3 diets: a MedDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a MedDiet supplemented with nuts, or an LFD. Follow-up data were collected at 3 and 5 y. Repeated-measures ANOVA, adjusted for potential confounding variables, was used to evaluate changes in diet adherence, CVD risk factors, and inflammatory variables.
RESULTS: The 2 MedDiet groups achieved a high degree of adherence to the intervention, and the LFD group had reduced energy intake from fat by 13% by 5 y. Compared with baseline, at 3 and 5 y, both MedDiet groups had significant reductions of ≥16% in plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (P ≤ 0.04), whereas there were no significant changes in the LFD group. The reductions in CD49d and CD40 expressions in T lymphocytes and monocytes at 3 y were ≥16% greater in both MedDiet groups than were the changes in the LFD group (P < 0.001) at 3 y. Compared with baseline, at 3 y, the MedDiet groups had increased HDL-cholesterol (≥8%) and decreased blood pressure (>4%) and total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride (≥8%) concentrations. At 5 y, concentrations of glucose (13%) and glycated hemoglobin (8%) had increased with the LFD.
CONCLUSIONS: The MedDiet participants had lower cellular and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers related to atherosclerosis at 3 and 5 y. This anti-inflammatory role of the MedDiet could explain in part the long-term cardioprotective effect of the MedDiet against CVD. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.

Arpón A, Riezu-Boj JI, Milagro FI, Marti A, Razquin C, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Estruch R, Casas R, Fitó M, Ros E, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez JA.
Adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with methylation changes in inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood cells.
J Physiol Biochem. 2016;73(3):445-455.
PMID: 28181167.
Erratum to: volume 73, issue 3 of Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. [J Physiol Biochem. 2017]
Abstract
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, might be modulated by environmental factors such as the diet, which in turn have been associated with the onset of several diseases such as obesity or cardiovascular events. Meanwhile, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has demonstrated favourable effects on cardiovascular risk, blood pressure, inflammation and other complications related to excessive adiposity. Some of these effects could be mediated by epigenetic modifications. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the adherence to MedDiet is associated with changes in the methylation status from peripheral blood cells. A subset of 36 individuals was selected within the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED)-Navarra study, a randomised, controlled, parallel trial with three groups of intervention in high cardiovascular risk volunteers, two with a MedDiet and one low-fat control group. Changes in methylation between baseline and 5 years were studied. DNA methylation arrays were analysed by several robust statistical tests and functional classifications. Eight genes related to inflammation and immunocompetence (EEF2, COL18A1, IL4I1, LEPR, PLAGL1, IFRD1, MAPKAPK2, PPARGC1B) were finally selected as changes in their methylation levels correlated with adherence to MedDiet and because they presented sensitivity related to a high variability in methylation changes. Additionally, EEF2 methylation levels positively correlated with concentrations of TNF-α and CRP. This report is apparently the first showing that adherence to MedDiet is associated with the methylation of the reported genes related to inflammation with a potential regulatory impact.

INSTITUCIONS QUE RECONEIXEN AL GRUP DE RECERCA

-Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación
-Departament d’Agricultura, Ramaderia, Pesca i Alimentació
-Consejería de Agricultura, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Rural de la Junta de Castilla La Mancha
-Departamento de Desarrollo Rural y Sostenibilidad del Gobierno de Aragón