GRUP DE RECERCA FUNDACIÓ DIETA MEDITERRÀNIA

Fundació Dieta Mediterrània (Barcelona)

Directora: Anna Bach Faig

dietamed@fdmed.org

(+34) 934 14 31 58

http://dietamediterranea.com

MEMBRES DEL GRUP INVESTIGADOR

  • Lluis Serra Majem, Catedràtic, Dept. de Ciències Clíniques, Universitat de Las Palmas de Gran Canària
  • Anna Bach Faig, Doctora i Màster en Salut Pública Nutricional, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània i Vocal d’Alimentació i Nutrició, Col.legi Oficial de Farmacèutics de Barcelona
  • Blanca Raidó Quintana, Diplomada en Nutrició Humana i Dietètica, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
  • Isabel Bertomeu, Diplomada en Nutrició Humana i Dietètica, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
  • Diana Julià, Responsable de Projectes Culturals i de Gestió i Captació de Projectes
  • Domingo Valiente, Director General, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània
    Pilar Bonet, Secretaria, Fundació Dieta Mediterrània

(Actualització de l’apartat: 31/12/2013)

ACTIVITATS I CAPACITATS DEL GRUP DE RECERCA

La Fundació Dieta Mediterrània (FDM) és una entitat sense ànim de lucre de caràcter estrictament científic i cultural fundada el 1996. La finalitat principal de la qual és la salvaguarda del patrimoni mil·lenari comú a les poblacions de la conca mediterrània, la filosofia de vida i costums alimentàries i culinàries han despertat d’interès d’eminents científics de tot el món en les últimes dècades per la seva contribució a la prevenció de nombroses malalties.

La Fundació Dieta Mediterrània està formada per un patronat que inclou organismes de la administració pública així com altres entitats i empreses. Està avalada per un comitè científic de gran prestigi internacional en el camp de la nutrició, format per 39 reconeguts investigadors internacionals, de 13 països mediterranis i no mediterranis que assessoren a la FDM en temes científics, i el qual està presidit pel president de la FDM, Lluís Serra Majem, catedràtic de Medicina Preventiva i Salut Pública, Universitat de Las Palmas de Gran Canària.

La Fundació destaca per la seva llarga trajectòria paral·lela en la investigació del “patró de dieta mediterrània” i salut, així com en la promoció del patró a través de campanyes d’educació nutricional. La seva recerca es base en l’estudi de la mencionada associació, sobretot a través de revisions sistemàtiques, en la monotorització de l’adhesió al patró a través d’índexs alimentaris, la buscada del consens en una definició del esmentat patró entre els experts i la investigació de com millorar la oferta i la demanda alimentaria en l’àmbit de l’alimentació laboral.

La Fundació organitza de forma bianual, en el marc d’Alimentària, el Congrés Internacional de Barcelona sobre la Dieta Mediterrània que reuneix uns 200-300 experts, i exposa uns 40 de pòsters científics. En aquest context es fa l’entrega del Premi Grande Covián i Diplomes d’Honor.

A més a més, des de la seva creació, la FDM realitza entre altres una varietat d’activitats dirigides a la promoció, difusió i investigació del Patró de Dieta Mediterrània:

-Inscripció de la Dieta Mediterrània en la Llista Representativa del Patrimoni Cultural Immaterial de la Humanitat de la UNESCO
– Coordinació de les sessions EPINUT – Sessions científiques periòdiques en epidemiologia nutricional
– Tallers a diferents públics: infantils de cuina mediterrània, per a gent gran, per a consumidors, etc.
– Conferències, articles i llibres científics i divulgatius.
– Cursos a distància (Postgrau i Diploma sobre l’alimentació Mediterrània)
– Projectes d’investigació, d’àmbit estatal o internacional
– Observatori de la Dieta Mediterrània
– Col·laborador en l’Observatori EROSKI Nutrició i Benestar
– Elaboració de materials didàctics: cartes, decàleg, jocs, llibres per a nens i famílies.
– Projectes de Promoció en l’àmbit comunitari en el sector de la restauració: AMED, GUSTINO i FOOD (acreditació d’establiments promotors de l’alimentació Mediterrània).

LÍNIES DE RECERCA

  • Investigació de l’associació “Dieta Mediterrània i Salut” (obesitat, càncer, envelliment, etc.).
    IP: Prof. Lluís Serra Majem
  • Monotorització de l’adhesió al patró de Dieta Mediterrània a través d’índexs alimentaris. 
    IP: Dra. Anna Bach-Faig
  • Cerca del consens en una definició del patró de Dieta Mediterrània entre els experts.
    IP: Prof. Lluís Serra Majem
  • Investigació de com millorar la oferta i la demanda alimentaria en l’alimentació laboral.
    IP: Dra. Anna Bach-Faig

PROJECTES DE RECERCA COMPETITIUS (DARRERS 2 ANYS)

  • RED: Alimentación saludable en la prevención primaria de enfermedades crónicas: la Red Predimed. IP: Lluís Serra-Majem. Entitat finançadora: Fondo de Investigaciones sanitarias. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo Referència: Redes temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa Sanitaria (RETICs). RD06/0045/0009. Durada: 2006- 2010. Vinculat a la línia de Recerca: 1
  • FOOD (Fighting Obesity through Offer and Demand). IP: Anna Bach-Faig. Entitat finançadora: European Comission. Referència: Promoción de la salud (HP-2008). Durada: 2009- 2011. Vinculat a la línia de Recerca: 4

MILLORS PUBLICACIONS DEL GRUP (DARRERS 5 ANYS)

  • Serra-Majem L, Roman B, Estruch R.
    Scientific evidence of interventions on the Mediterranean Diet: a systematic review. 
    Nutrition Rev. 2006; 64: 27-47
    PMID: 16532897

Abstract: The Mediterranean Diet has been associated with greater longevity and quality of life in epidemiological studies, the majority being observational. The application of evidence-based medicine to the area of public health nutrition involves the necessity of developing clinical trials and systematic reviews to develop sound recommendations. The purpose of this study was to analyze and review the experimental studies on Mediterranean diet and disease prevention. A systematic review was made and a total of 43 articles corresponding to 35 different experimental studies were selected. Results were analyzed for the effects of the Mediterranean diet on lipoproteins, endothelial resistance, diabetes and antioxidative capacity, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, cancer, body composition, and psychological function. The Mediterranean diet showed favorable effects on lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, myocardial and cardiovascular mortality, and cancer incidence in obese patients and in those with previous myocardial infarction. Results disclose the mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet in disease prevention, particularly in cardiovascular disease secondary prevention, but also emphasize the need to undertake experimental research and systematic reviews in the areas of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, infectious diseases, age-related cognitive impairment, and cancer, among others. Interventions should use food scores or patterns to ascertain adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Further experimental research is needed to corroborate the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and the underlying mechanisms, and in this sense the methodology of the ongoing PREDIMED study is explained.

  • Da Silva R, Bach-Faig A, Raidó Quintana B, Buckland G, Vaz de Almeida MD, Serra-Majem  L.
    Worldwide variation of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in 1961–1965 and 2000–2003. 
    Public Health Nutr 2009;12(9A):1676-1684
    PMID: 19689839

Objective: The present study aimed to analyse the worldwide trends of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003.DESIGN: Data were obtained from the FAO food balance sheets in two periods: 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. In order to have a sample from across the world, forty-one countries were selected. The average of available energy for different food groups was calculated for all selected countries. These values were used to evaluate the adherence to the MD through a variation of Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI).RESULTS: The majority of the forty-one countries in this study have tended to drift away from a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern. Mediterranean Europe and the Other Mediterranean country groups suffered a significant decrease in their MAI values. The Mediterranean European group, especially Greece, experienced the greatest decrease in MAI value. In both periods, the Other Mediterranean countries showed the highest MAI values. In an analysis by countries, Iran had the highest increase in MAI across the time periods, and Egypt occupied the first place in the ranking in 2000-2003. The Northern European group was the only one that registered an increase in MAI, although this was not statistically significant.CONCLUSIONS: Many countries in the Mediterranean basin are drifting away from the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP). However, countries in Northern Europe and some other countries around the world are taking on a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern. The Other Mediterranean countries have the closest adherence to the MDP, currently and in the 1960s. Nutrition policy actions to tackle dietary westernisation and preserve the healthy prudent MDP are required.

  • Roman B, Carta L, Martínez-González MA, Serra-Majem L.
    Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly. Review. 
    Clin Interv Aging. 2008;3(1):97-109
    PMID: 18494169

Abstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease), cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older). A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival) or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.

  • Buckland G, Bach-Faig A, Serra-Majem L.
    Obesity and the Mediterranean diet: a systematic review of observational and intervention studies. 
    Obesity Reviews 2008, 9: 582-593
    PMID: 18547378

Abstract: World Health Organization projections estimate that worldwide approximately one-third of adults are overweight and one-tenth are obese. There is accumulating research into the Mediterranean diet and whether it could prevent or treat obesity. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to systematically review and analyse the epidemiological evidence on the Mediterranean diet and overweight/obesity. We identified 21 epidemiological studies that explored the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and weight. These included seven cross-sectional, three cohort and 11 intervention studies. Of these, 13 studies reported that Mediterranean diet adherence was significantly related to less overweight/obesity or more weight loss. Eight studies found no evidence of this association. Exploring the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and overweight/obesity is complex, and there are important methodological differences and limitations in the studies that make it difficult to compare results. Although the results are inconsistent, the evidence points towards a possible role of the Mediterranean diet in preventing overweight/obesity, and physiological mechanisms can explain this protective effect. Despite this, more research is needed to substantiate this association. Epidemiological studies should use a consistent universal definition of the Mediterranean diet, and address common methodological limitations to strengthen the quality of research in this area.

  • Bach-Faig A, Serra-Majem L, Carrasco JL, Roman B, Ngo J, Bertomeu I, Obrador B.
    The use of indexes evaluating the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in epidemiological studies: a review.
    Public Health Nutrition 2006; 9: 132–146.
    PMID: 16512961

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to review some of the methods that several epidemiological studies use to evaluate the adherence of a population to the Mediterranean diet pattern. Among these methods, diet indexes attempt to make a global evaluation of the quality of the diet based on a traditional Mediterranean reference pattern, described as a priori, general and qualitative. The Mediterranean diet indexes, hence, summarise the diet by means of a single score that results from a function of different components, such as food, food groups or a combination of foods and nutrients. The reviewed evaluation methods can be classified into three categories depending on the way they are calculated: (1) those based on a positive or negative scoring of the components, (2) those that add or substract standardised components, and (3) those that are based on a ratio between components. Dietary scores have been used to explore the multiple associations between the Mediterranean diet, as an integral entity, and health parameters such as life expectancy or the incidence of obesity, cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancers. Moreover, these indexes are also useful tools to measure food consumption trends and to identify the involved factors, as well as to develop comprehensive public health nutrition recommendations. A more precise and quantitative definition of the Mediterranean diet is required if the adherence to such a dietary pattern is intended to be more accurately measured. Other aspects of the Mediterranean diet indexes should also be taken into account, like the inclusion of typical Mediterranean foods such as nuts and fish and the validation of the dietary pattern approach by using biomarkers.

INSTITUCIONS QUE RECONEIXEN AL GRUP DE RECERCA