- Corella D, González JI, Bulló M, Carrasco P, Portolés O, Díez-Espino J, Covas MI, Ruíz-Gutierrez V, Gómez-Gracia E, Arós F, Fiol M, Herrera MC, Santos JM, Sáez G, Lamuela R, Lahoz C, Vinyoles E, Ros E, Estruch R.
Polymorphisms cyclooxygenase-2 -765G>C and interleukin-6 -174G>C are associated with serum inflammation markers in a high cardiovascular risk population and do not modify the response to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts.
J Nutr. 2009;139:128-34.
Abstract: Inflammation is involved in cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have found that the Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce serum concentrations of inflammation markers. However, none of these studies have analyzed the influence of genetic variability in such a response. Our objective was to study the effect of the -765G>C polymorphism in the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene and the -174G>C polymorphism in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene on serum concentrations of IL-6, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as their influence on the response to a nutritional intervention with MD. An intervention study in a high cardiovascular risk Mediterranean population (314 men and 407 women) was undertaken. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a low-fat control diet or a MD supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts. Measures were obtained at baseline and after a 3-mo intervention period. At baseline, the COX-2 -765G>C polymorphism was associated with lower serum IL-6 (5.85 +/- 4.82 in GG vs. 4.74 +/- 4.14 ng/L in C-allele carriers; P = 0.002) and ICAM-1 (265.8 +/- 114.8 in GG vs. 243.0 +/- 107.1 microg/L in C-carriers; P = 0.018) concentrations. These differences remained significant after multivariate adjustment. The IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism was associated with higher (CC vs. G-carriers) serum ICAM-1 concentrations in both men and women and with higher serum IL-6 concentrations in men. Following the dietary intervention, no significant gene x diet interactions were found. In conclusion, although COX-2 -765G>C and IL-6 -174G>C polymorphisms were associated with inflammation, consuming a MD (either supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts) reduced the concentration of inflammation markers regardless of these polymorphisms.
- SCorella D, Peloso G, Arnett DK, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Tucker K, Lai CQ, Parnell LD, Coltell O, Lee YC, Ordovas JM.
APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations.
Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1897-906.
Background: Nutrigenetics studies the role of genetic variation on interactions between diet and health, aiming to provide more personalized dietary advice. However, replication has been low. Our aim was to study interaction among a functional APOA2 polymorphism, food intake, and body mass index (BMI) in independent populations to replicate findings and to increase their evidence level.METHODS: Cross-sectional, follow-up (20 years), and case-control analyses were undertaken in 3 independent populations. We analyzed gene-diet interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C polymorphism and saturated fat intake on BMI and obesity in 3462 individuals from 3 populations in the United States: the Framingham Offspring Study (1454 whites), the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study (1078 whites), and Boston-Puerto Rican Centers on Population Health and Health Disparities Study (930 Hispanics of Caribbean origin).RESULTS: Prevalence of the CC genotype in study participants ranged from 10.5% to 16.2%. We identified statistically significant interactions between the APOA2 -265T>C and saturated fat regarding BMI in all 3 populations. Thus, the magnitude of the difference in BMI between the individuals with the CC and TT+TC genotypes differed by saturated fat. A mean increase in BMI of 6.2% (range, 4.3%-7.9%; P = .01) was observed between genotypes with high- (> or =22 g/d) but not with low- saturated fat intake in all studies. Likewise, the CC genotype was significantly associated with higher obesity prevalence in all populations only in the high-saturated fat stratum. Meta-analysis estimations of obesity for individuals with the CC genotype compared with the TT+TC genotype were an odds ratio of 1.84 (95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.47; P < .001) in the high-saturated fat stratum, but no association was detected in the low-saturated fat stratum (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.11; P = .18).CONCLUSION: For the first time to our knowledge, a gene-diet interaction influencing BMI and obesity has been strongly and consistently replicated in 3 independent populations.
- Francès F, Verdú F, Portolés O, Castelló A, Sorlí JV, Guillen M, Corella D.
PPAR-alpha L162V and PGC-1 G482S gene polymorphisms, but not PPAR-gamma P12A, are associated with alcohol consumption in a Spanish Mediterranean population.
Clin Chim Acta. 2008;398:70-4.
Background: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) and its co-activators are regulatory elements of the cellular lipid homeostasis and have been associated with feeding behavior modulation. Animal models suggest that these genes may be involved in alcohol consumption regulation. However, no studies in humans exist. Our aim is to estimate the possible association between polymorphisms in the PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma and PPAR-gamma co-activator 1A (PGC-1A) genes and alcohol consumption in humans.METHODS: We have conducted a cross-sectional study between the PPAR-alpha L162V, PPAR-gamma P12A and PGC-1A G482S polymorphisms, and alcohol consumption in a general Mediterranean Spanish population (303 men and 443 women).RESULTS: We have found an association between the L162V polymorphism and alcohol consumption in which, carriers of the V allele were more prevalent among alcohol consumers (19.4% vs. 9.8%; OR 2.69; 95% CI: 1.31-5.54, p=0.007). The G482S polymorphism showed a significantly higher frequency in the group of high alcohol drinkers than in non-high alcohol drinkers (33.4% vs. 20.6%; OR 2.28; 95% CI: 1.07-4.88, p=0.034). Mean alcohol consumption was higher as the number of G alleles increased (GG 8.6+/-12.8 g/day, GS 6.6+/-9.2 g/day, SS 5.6+/-7.8 g/day, p=0.003). These results remained statistically significant after covariate adjustment.CONCLUSIONS: PPAR-alpha L162V and PGC-1A G482S polymorphisms are associated with alcohol consumption in the Mediterranean population.
- Sorlí JV, Francés F, González JI, Guillén M, Portolés O, Sabater A, Coltell O, Corella D.
Impact of the -1438G>a polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene on anthropometric profile and obesity risk: a case-control study in a Spanish Mediterranean population.
Abstract: Research into the genetic factors that regulate food intake is arousing great interest. The polymorphism -1438G>A in the serotonin 2A receptor or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) type 2A receptor (5-HTR2A) gene has been associated with alterations in food intake such as anorexia and bulimia. However, its association with obesity has not been studied to the same extent. Our aim, therefore, was to estimate the association between the -1438G>A polymorphism and obesity risk and related anthropometric variables in a Spanish Mediterranean population. A case-control study including 303 cases and 606 controls paired by gender and age was undertaken. The association between the -1438G>A polymorphism and obesity and other anthropometric measures was studied. No association with obesity risk was observed. However, when only the obese group was analyzed, it was observed that AA subjects presented a lower body mass index (BMI) than G allele carriers (35.2+/-5.3 kg/m2 vs 37.5+/-7.8 kg/m2; P=0.039). Moreover, significant differences were also obtained in waist perimeter that was lower in AA subjects compared to G allele carriers (105+/-11 cm vs 112+/-17 cm; P=0.011). In conclusion, although the -1438G>A polymorphism is not a relevant marker for obesity risk, this variant may play a role in determining BMI in obese subjects.
- Corella D, Qi L, Tai ES, Deurenberg-Yap M, Tan CE, Chew SK, Ordovas JM.
Perilipin gene variation determines higher susceptibility to insulin resistance in Asian women when consuming a high-saturated fat, low-carbohydrate diet.
Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1313-9.
Objective: To investigate the association between genetic variation in the adipocyte protein perilipin (PLIN) and insulin resistance in an Asian population as well as to examine their modulation by macronutrient intake.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A nationally representative sample (Chinese, Malays, and Indians) was selected in the Singapore National Health Survey following the World Health Organization-recommended model for field surveys of diabetes. A total of 1,909 men and 2,198 women (aged 18-69 years) were studied. Genetic (PLIN 11482G–>A and 14995A–>T), lifestyle, clinical, and biochemical data were obtained. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to evaluate insulin resistance. Diet was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire in one of every two subjects.RESULTS: We did not find a significant between-genotype difference in insulin resistance measures. However, in women we found statistically significant gene-diet interactions (recessive model) between PLIN 11482G–>A/14995A–>T polymorphisms (in high linkage disequilibrium) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs; P = 0.003/0.005) and carbohydrate (P = 0.004/0.012) in determining HOMA-IR. These interactions were in opposite directions and were more significant for 11482G–>A, considered the tag polymorphism. Thus, women in the highest SFA tertile (11.8-19%) had higher HOMA-IR (48% increase; P trend = 0.006) than women in the lowest (3.1-9.4%) only if they were homozygotes for the PLIN minor allele. Conversely, HOMA-IR decreased (-24%; P trend = 0.046) as carbohydrate intake increased. These effects were stronger when SFAs and carbohydrate were combined as an SFA-to-carbohydrate ratio. Moreover, this gene-diet interaction was homogeneously found across the three ethnic groups.CONCLUSIONS: PLIN 11482G–>A/14995A–>T polymorphisms modulate the association between SFAs/carbohydrate in diet and insulin resistance in Asian women.