Jiménez A, Viñals C, Marco-Benedí V, González P, Domenech M, Suárez-Tembra M, Pinto X, Ortega E.
Sex Disparities in Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2023 Jan 17;81(2):203-205.
Chiva-Blanch G, Giró O, Cofán M, Calle-Pascual AL, Delgado E, Gomis R, Jiménez A, Franch-Nadal J, Rojo Martínez G, Ortega E.
Low Percentage of Vegetable Fat in Red Blood Cells Is Associated with Worse Glucose Metabolism and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes.
Nutrients. 2022 Mar 25;14(7):1368.
Abstract: The identification of nutritional patterns associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) might help lead the way to a more efficient and personalized nutritional intervention. Our study is aimed at evaluating the association between fatty acids (FA) in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, as a quantitative biomarker of regular dietary fat intake, and incident type 2 diabetes in a Spanish population. We included 1032 adult Spaniards (57% women, age 49 ± 15 years, 18% prediabetes), without diabetes at study entry, from the Di@bet.es cohort. Incident diabetes was diagnosed at the end of the study follow-up. The FA percentage in RBC was determined at baseline by gas chromatography. Participants were followed on average 7.5 ± 0.6 years. Lower percentages of linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic (ALA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and higher percentages of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in RBC membranes were associated, independently of classical risk factors, with worse glucose metabolism at the end of the study follow-up. In addition, higher percentages of ALA and EPA, and moderate percentages of DHA, were associated with lower risk of diabetes. No significant associations were found for LA and diabetes risk. Dietary patterns rich in vegetables are independently associated with lower risk of both deterioration of glucose regulation and incident diabetes, and should be reinforced for the prevention of diabetes. Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid; fatty acids; linoleic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; type 2 diabetes; worse of glucose metabolism.
Chiva-Blanch G, Bratseth V, Laake K, Arnesen H, Solheim S, Schmidt EB, Badimon L, Seljeflot I.
One year of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation does not reduce circulating prothrombotic microvesicles in elderly subjects after suffering a myocardial infarction.
Clin Nutr. 2021 Dec;40(12):5674-5677.
Background & aims: Circulating microvesicles (cMV) are both effectors and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the effects of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 PUFA) in MV shedding are not yet well known. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of long-term n3 PUFA supplementation on cMV release from cells of the vascular compartment in elderly subjects at very high risk of CVD. Methods: We included 156 elderly patients 2-8 weeks after suffering an acute myocardial infarction from the OMEMI cohort. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive 930 mg EPA + 660 mg DHA (n3 PUFA intervention) or corn oil (56% linoleic acid, 32% oleic acid, 10% palmitic acid) used as placebo daily for two years. At inclusion and after one-year follow-up, prothrombotic [annexin V (AV)+] cMV derived from blood and vascular cells were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Results: No differences were observed in the levels of cMV between the randomized groups at inclusion in the study. After one-year follow-up, total AV+, platelet-derived CD61+/AV+, and endothelial-derived CD31+/AV+ and CD31+/CD42b-/AV+ cMV increased significantly in both groups. In the n3 PUFA supplemented group, platelet-derived CD62P+/AV+, CD42b+/AV+ and CD31+/CD42b+/AV+; leukocyte-derived CD62L+/AV+, CD45+/AV+, and CD11b+/AV+, as well as endothelial derived CD146+/AV+, CD62E+/AV+, and CD309+/AV+ cMV also increased significantly. No significant differences were however, observed in the changes of cMV levels between groups. Conclusion: In elderly Norwegians who have suffered a recent acute myocardial infarction and treated as per guidelines, long-term supplementation with 1.8 g/day n3 PUFA does not modulate prothrombotic MV release from blood and vascular cells. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01841944. Keywords: DHA; EPA; Elderly; Microvesicles; Omega 3 fatty acids; Thrombosis.
Mesa A, Cofán M, Esmatjes E, Perea V, Boswell L, Giménez M, Sala-Vila A, Vinagre I, Viñals C, Chiva-Blanch G, Serés-Noriega T, Blanco J, Conget I, Ortega E, Amor AJ. Biomarkers of fatty acid intake are independently associated with preclinical atherosclerosis in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
Eur J Nutr. 2021 Dec;60(8):4595-4605.
Purpose: Information on the association between diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is scarce. We assessed the association between biomarkers of fatty acid (FA) intake and the presence of carotid plaques (a surrogate marker of future CVD events) in this high-risk population. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 167 consecutive T1D patients without CVD and with at least one of the following: ≥ 40 years, diabetic nephropathy, or ≥ 10 years of T1D duration with another CVD risk factor. The FA profile of erythrocyte membranes was determined by gas chromatography, and the number of carotid plaques (intima-media thickness ≥ 1.5 mm) was assessed by ultrasonography. Regression models were constructed adjusting for classical (age, gender, blood pressure, smoking habit, LDL-cholesterol, body mass index and statins) and T1D-specific risk factors (diabetes duration, HbA1c and chronic complications). Results: A total of 58.7% were men (mean age 48.3 ± 10.3 years, T1D duration 27.2 ± 10.1 years). Sixty-one patients (36.5%) showed carotid plaque. Linoleic acid decreased and all-C18:1trans increased with the number of carotid plaques (none, 1-2, ≥ 3 plaques; p for trend < 0.05). In multivariate regression models, linoleic acid remained inversely associated with the presence of plaque [1% increase of total FAs; OR 0.71 (0.53-0.95), p = 0.021] and ≥ 2 plaques [OR 0.70 (0.51-0.98), p = 0.039]; whereas, all-C18:1trans was positively associated with ≥ 3 plaques (0.1% increase of total FAs; OR 1.51 [1.05-2.16], p = 0.026). Conclusions: Erythrocyte FA composition, as a biomarker of FA intake, was independently associated with preclinical atherosclerosis in T1DM. Our data support the potential role of an unfavorable pattern of fat intake and CVD risk in this population. Keywords: Carotid ultrasonography; Fatty acids; Linoleic acid; Preclinical atherosclerosis; Trans fatty acids; Type 1 diabetes.
Chiva-Blanch G, Jiménez C, Pinyol M, Herreras Z, Catalán M, Martínez-Huélamo M, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Sala-Vila A, Cofán M, Gilabert R, Jiménez A, Ortega E.
5-, cis-, Trans- and Total Lycopene Plasma Concentrations Inversely Relate to Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Subjects.
Nutrients. 2020 Jun 6;12(6):1696.
Diabetic subjects are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis, the common soil of most of the cardiovascular complications, is more prevalent and extensive in this population due not only to hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, but also to inflammation and oxidative stress. Lycopenes are bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities mostly supplied by tomato and tomato byproducts. We investigated the association between circulating lycopenes and carotid plaque burden in diabetic patients, in a cross-sectional study in 105 newly diagnosed diabetic subjects. Atheroma plaque (wall thickness ≥ 1.5 mm), number of plaques, and plaque burden (sum of maximum heights of all plaques) were assessed by sonographic evaluation of carotid arteries. Plasma lycopenes (5-cis-, 9-cis-, 13-cis-, and trans-lycopene) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry HPLC-MS. Atheroma plaque was observed in 75 participants, from which 38 presented one plaque and 37 two or more carotid plaques. No differences were observed in the plasmatic concentrations of lycopenes between subjects with and without atherosclerotic plaque presence. However, plaque burden was inversely associated with 5-cis-lycopene, all cis-lycopene isomers, trans-lycopene, and total lycopene isomers (all, p < 0.05). High plasma levels of lycopenes inversely relate to atherosclerotic burden. We provide novel evidence that suggests that the consumption of compounds found in tomato and tomato byproducts might be beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Keywords: atherosclerosis; cis- and trans-isomers; lycopene; plaque burden; tomato; type 2 diabetes mellitus.